論文出處：Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Jun;138:111504. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111504.
論文名稱：4-Acetylantroquinonol B ameliorates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by suppression of ER stress and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
作 者：Yen IC, Tu QW, Chang TC, Lin PH, Li YF, Lee SY.
出 版 年：2021
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an inflammatory lipotoxic disorder with a prevalence of over 25% worldwide. However, safe and effective therapeutic agents for the management of NAFLD are still lacking. We aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect and molecular mechanism of 4-acetylantroquinonol B (4-AAQB), a natural ubiquinone derivative obtained from the mycelia of Antrodia cinnamomea.
RAW264.7 and J774A.1 cells were treated with 4-AAQB and then stimulated with LPS or tunicamycin (TM) for 24 h. Inflammatory responses, markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome were analyzed in both cell lines. In the applied in vivo model, male C57BL/6J mice were fed with chow or a methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet along with vehicle or 4-AAQB (10 mg/kg, i.p. injected, once a day) for 10 consecutive days. Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured. Liver tissues were analyzed using histological techniques; protein levels involved in ER stress, NLRP3 inflammasome, and inflammatory responses were measured.
4-AAQB significantly ameliorated the plasma levels of ALT and AST as well as the NAFLD activity score (NAS) in mice fed the MCD diet. In addition, 4-AAQB suppressed inflammatory responses, ER stress, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but increased the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signaling pathways in both in vitro and in vivo models.
We suggest that 4-AAQB treatment might be a tangible therapeutic strategy in the management of NAFLD/NASH.
論文出處：J Am Coll Nutr. 2021 May-Jun;40(4):349-357. doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1779850.
論文名稱：Hepatoprotective Effect of Antrodia cinnamomea Mycelium in Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
作 者：Chiou YL, Chyau CC, Li TJ, Kuo CF, Kang YY, Chen CC, Ko WS.
出 版 年：2021
論文結論：Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has become a prominent liver disease in contemporary society because of the changing dieting styles. Complicated syndromes often accompanied by obesity and diabetes makes no standard treatment for NASH. Therefore, we investigated the potential role of Antrodia cinnamomea mycelium (ACM) as nutraceutical supplementation in the treatment of NASH in this 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
28 Participants were treated with three capsules per day containing either 420 mg of ACM or 420 mg of starch as a placebo. The participants were required to follow a predetermined regular visit to hospital every three months during the intervention period (6 months). During each study visit, subjects underwent anthropometric measurements and blood testing for biochemical analysis, immune function assay, inflammatory cytokines assay, and FibroMax test.
The ACM supplemented group had a significant improvement in steatosis and decreased in the inflammatory marker of TNF-α after three and six months. NASH patients who received ACM showed a significant decrease in the SteatoTest mean value from 0.66 at baseline to 0.49 at 6 months (p < 0.029) and the ActiTest mean value decreased from 0.46 at baseline to 0.30 at 6 months (p < 0.029).
This is the first clinical investigation that explores the hepatoprotective effect of A. cinnamomea mycelium in patients with NASH. No participants experienced any adverse events during the study, which suggested that ACM is a safe alternative treatment for NASH.
論文出處：Front Immunol. 2021 May 14;12:664425. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.664425.
論文名稱：2,4-Dimethoxy-6-Methylbenzene-1,3-diol, a Benzenoid From Antrodia cinnamomea, Mitigates Psoriasiform Inflammation by Suppressing MAPK/NF-kappaB Phosphorylation and GDAP1L1/Drp1 Translocation.
作 者：Chuang SY, Chen CY, Yang SC, Alalaiwe A, Lin CH, Fang JY.
出 版 年：2021
論文結論：Antrodia cinnamomea exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities. We aimed to explore the antipsoriatic potential of 2,4-dimethoxy-6-methylbenzene-1,3-diol (DMD) derived from A. cinnamomea. The macrophages activated by imiquimod (IMQ) were used as the cell model for examining the anti-inflammatory effect of DMD in vitro. A significantly high inhibition of IL-23 and IL-6 by DMD was observed in THP-1 macrophages and bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages. The conditioned medium of DMD-treated macrophages could reduce neutrophil migration and keratinocyte overproliferation. DMD could downregulate cytokine/chemokine by suppressing the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-κB. We also observed inhibition of GDAP1L1/Drp1 translocation from the cytoplasm to mitochondria by DMD intervention. Thus, mitochondrial fission could be a novel target for treating psoriatic inflammation. A psoriasiform mouse model treated by IMQ showed reduced scaling, erythema, and skin thickening after topical application of DMD. Compared to the IMQ stimulation only, the active compound decreased epidermal thickness by about 2-fold. DMD diminished the number of infiltrating macrophages and neutrophils and their related cytokine/chemokine production in the lesional skin. Immunostaining of the IMQ-treated skin demonstrated the inhibition of GDAP1LI and phosphorylated Drp1 by DMD. The present study provides insight regarding the potential use of DMD as an effective treatment modality for psoriatic inflammation.
論文出處：Phytother Res. 2021 Mar;35(3):1609-1620. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6928.
論文名稱：Protective effects of Antrodia camphorata extract against hypoxic cell injury and ischemic stroke brain damage.
作 者：Kong ZL, Hsu YT, Johnson A, Tsai TH, Miao S, He JL, Tsou D.
出 版 年：2021
論文結論：Ischemic stroke is the most prevalent stroke condition in the world resulted in either a transient ischemic attack or long-lasting neurological problems due to the interrupted or reduced blood flow to the brain. Antrodia camphorata is a well-known medicinal mushroom native to Taiwan and is familiar due to its medicinal effects. The current study investigated the protective effect of A. camphorata-alcohol extracts (AC-AE) against cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2)-induced oxidative stress in vitro and ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury in vivo. The rats were pre-treated with AC-AE for 4 weeks. Our results showed that AC-AE reduced cell damage and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in C6 and PC12 cells under CoCl2-induced hypoxic condition. AC-AE doses (385, 770, 1,540 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks) increased nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA expressions and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expressions in Sprague Dawley rat. Besides, it decreased stroke infarct size and increased the level of antioxidants in both brain and serum. Furthermore, it reduced the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Our results suggested that AC-AE exerted an effective reduction of ischemia stroke by regulating ROS production.dysfunction.
論文出處：Phytochemistry. 2021 Apr;184:112677. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112677.
論文名稱：Enhancement of antroquinonol production via the overexpression of 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase biosynthesis-related genes in Antrodia cinnamomea.
作 者：Liu X, Xia Y, Zhang Y, Liang L, Xiong Z, Wang G, Song X, Ai L.
出 版 年：2021
論文結論：Antroquinonol (AQ) as one of the most potent bioactive components in Antrodia cinnamomea (Fomitopsidaceae) shows a broad spectrum of anticancer effects. The lower yield of AQ has hampered its possible clinical application. AQ production may potentially be improved by genetic engineering. In this study, the protoplast-polyethylene glycol method combined with hygromycin as a selection marker was used in the genetic engineering of A. cinnamomea S-29. The optimization of several crucial parameters revealed that the optimal condition for generating maximal viable protoplasts was digestion of 4-day-old germlings with a mixture of enzymes (lysing enzyme, snailase, and cellulase) and 1.0 M MgSO4 for 4 h. The ubiA and CoQ2 genes, which are involved in the synthesis of 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase, were cloned and overexpressed in A. cinnamomea. The results showed that ubiA and CoQ2 overexpression significantly increased AQ production in submerged fermentation. The overexpressing strain produced maximum AQ concentrations of 14.75 ± 0.41 mg/L and 19.25 ± 0.29 mg/L in pCT74-gpd-ubiA and pCT74-gpd-CoQ2 transformants, respectively. These concentrations were 2.00 and 2.61 times greater than those produced by the control, respectively. This research exemplifies how the production of metabolites may be increased by genetic manipulation, and will be invaluable to guide the genetic engineering of other mushrooms that produce medically useful compounds.
論文出處：Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2021 Jan 20. doi: 10.2174/1874467214666210120152140.
論文名稱：Protective Effects of Antrodia cinnamomea and Its Constituent Compound Dehydroeburicoic Acid 32 against Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
作 者：Xu L, Peng AK, Cao YN, Qiao X, Yue SS, Ye M, Qi R.
出 版 年：2021
論文結論：Background: Alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), a leading chronic hepatic disease, affects an increasing number of people, and no effective drugs for the treatment of AFLD are available. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) can inhibit AFLD, but its mechanisms and the effective compound in AC are unknown.
Objective: We aimed to explore the anti-AFLD mechanism of AC and the active compound within AC.
Methods: Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice underwent 4 weeks of daily ethanol (EtOH) feeding to induce AFLD. AC or dehydroeburicoic acid 32 (DEA32), a compound in AC, was given to the mice. Parallel experiments to assess the effect of AC were conducted in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)-knockout (KO) mice. Primary mouse hepatocytes were incubated with ethanol and Alda-1 (an ALDH2 agonist), AC or DEA32.
Results: In WT mice with AFLD, AC reduced lipid deposition, increased the expression and activity of ALDH2, reduced the acetaldehyde content, and downregulated the expression of lipogenic and inflammatory genes in the liver. These effects of AC disappeared in ALDH2 KO mice. DEA32 was identified as an active compound in AC, as its effects on EtOH-treated WT hepatocytes were similar to those of AC, which were comparable to the effects of Alda-1. These effects of DEA32 disappeared in EtOH-treated ALDH2 KO hepatocytes. Furthermore, in WT mice with AFLD, DEA32 reduced lipid deposition, increased the activity of ALDH2 and reduced the accumulation of acetaldehyde in the liver. DEA32 also downregulated the mRNA expression of genes related to lipogenesis and inflammation.
Conclusion: AC and its constituent compound DEA32 inhibit AFLD by upregulating ALDH2 activity, accelerating acetaldehyde metabolism and suppressing lipogenesis and inflammation in the liver.
論文出處：Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Sep 22;21(18):6971. doi: 10.3390/ijms21186971.
論文名稱：4-Acetylantroquinonol B Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis by Inhibiting the Autophagy Pathway in a Simulated Microgravity Model.
作 者：Wu CH, Ou CH, Yen IC, Lee SY.
出 版 年：2020
論文結論：Astronauts suffer from 1–2% bone loss per month during space missions. Targeting osteoclast differentiation has been regarded as a promising strategy to prevent osteoporosis in microgravity (μXg). 4-acetylantroquinonol B (4-AAQB), a ubiquinone from Antrodia cinnamomea, has shown anti-inflammatory and anti-hepatoma activities. However, the effect of 4-AAQB on μXg-induced osteoclastogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanistic impact of 4-AAQB on osteoclast formation under μXg conditions. The monocyte/macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 was exposed to simulated μXg (Rotary Cell Culture System; Synthecon, Houston, TX, USA) for 24 h and then treated with 4-AAQB or alendronate (ALN) and osteoclast differentiation factor receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). Osteoclastogenesis, bone resorption activity, and osteoclast differentiation-related signaling pathways were analyzed using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, actin ring fluorescent staining, bone resorption, and western blotting assays. Based on the results of TRAP staining, actin ring staining, and bone resorption assays, we found that 4-AAQB significantly inhibited μXg-induced osteoclast differentiation. The critical regulators of osteoclast differentiation, including nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), c-Fos, and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), were consistently decreased. Meanwhile, osteoclast apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were also observed along with autophagy suppression. Interestingly, the autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine (CQ) showed similar effects to 4-AAQB. In conclusion, we suggest that 4-AAQB may serve as a potential agent against μXg-induced osteoclast formation.
論文出處：Molecules. 2020 Sep 14;25(18):4213. doi: 10.3390/molecules25184213.
論文名稱：Antrodia cinnamomea Extraction Waste Supplementation Promotes Thermal Stress Tolerance and Tissue Regeneration Ability of Zebrafish.
作 者：Chang CC, Lu YC, Wang CC, Ko TL, Chen JR, Wang W, Chen YL, Wang YW, Chang TH, Hsu HF, Houng JY.
出 版 年：2020
論文結論：Antrodia cinnamomea (AC) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and immunomodulation activities. It is estimated that hundreds of metric tons of AC extraction waste (ACEW) are produced per year in Taiwan. This study aims to assess the feasibility of applying ACEW as feed supplement in the aquaculture industry. ACEW significantly inhibited the growth of microorganisms in the water tank, by around 39.4% reduction on the fifth day with feed supplemented of 10% ACEW. The feed conversion efficiency of zebrafish with 10% ACEW supplementation for 30 days was 1.22-fold compared to that of the control. ACEW dramatically improved the tolerances of zebrafish under the heat and cold stresses. When at water temperature extremes of 38 °C or 11 °C, compared to the 100% mortality rate in the control group, the 10% ACEW diet group still had 91.7% and 83.3% survival rates, respectively. In a caudal fin amputation test, the fin recovery of zebrafish was increased from 68.4% to 93% with 10% ACEW diet after 3-week regeneration. ACEW effectively down-regulated the gene expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, and up-regulated the gene expression of IL-4/13A. Additionally, the supplement of ACEW in the feed can maintain and prevent the fish’s body weight from dropping too much under enteritis. Taken together, ACEW has beneficial potential in aquaculture.
論文出處：Nutrients. 2020 Sep 11;12(9):2778. doi: 10.3390/nu12092778.
論文名稱：Protective Effect of Spore Powder of Antrodia camphorata ATCC 200183 on CCl(4)-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice.
作 者：Ren Y, Li HX, Zhou L, Lu ZM, Shi J, Geng Y, Xu ZH.
出 版 年：2020
論文結論：Liver fibrosis is a pathological process with intrahepatic diffused deposition of the excess extracellular matrix, which leads to various chronic liver diseases. Drugs with high efficacy and low toxicity for liver fibrosis are still unavailable. Antrodia camphorata has antioxidant, antivirus, antitumor and anti-inflammation roles, and has been used to treat liver diseases in the population. However, the hepatoprotective effects of A. camphorata spores and the mechanisms behind it have not been investigated. In this study, we evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of spore powder of A. camphorata (SP, 100 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in mice. SP groups reduced serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities compared with the CCl4 group. SP also showed a decrease in hydroxyproline (Hyp) content in liver tissues. SP improved cell damage and reduced collagen deposition by H&E, Sirius red and Masson staining. Furthermore, SP down-regulated the mRNA levels of α-SMA and Col 1, and the protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen I (Col 1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-Κb (NF-κB) p65. In summary, SP has an ameliorative effect on hepatic fibrosis, probably by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells, reducing the synthesis of extracellular matrix.
論文出處：Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2020 Jul;33(7):1167-1179. doi: 10.5713/ajas.19.0393.
論文名稱：Effects of dietary Antrodia cinnamomea fermented product supplementation on metabolism pathways of antioxidant, inflammatory, and lipid metabolism pathways-a potential crosstalk.
作 者：Lee MT, Lin WC, Lin LJ, Wang SY, Chang SC, Lee TT.
出 版 年：2020
This study was conducted to fathom the underlying mechanisms of nutrition intervention and redox sensitive transcription factors regulated by Antrodia cinnamomea fermented product (FAC) dietary supplementation in broiler chickens.
Four hundreds d-old broilers (41±0.5 g/bird) assigned to 5 groups were examined after consuming control diet, or control diet replaced with 5% wheat bran (WB), 10% WB, 5% FAC, and 10% FAC. Liver mRNA expression of antioxidant, inflammatory and lipid metabolism pathways were analyzed. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in each group were tested in the chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (cPBMCs) of 35-d old broilers to represent the stress level of the chickens. Furthermore, these cells were stimulated with 2,2′-Azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate the cell stress tolerance by measuring cell viability and oxidative species.
Heme oxygenase-1, glutathione S-transferase, glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit, and superoxide dismutase, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) that regulates the above antioxidant genes were all up-regulated significantly in FAC groups. Reactive oxygen species modulator protein 1 and NADPH oxygenase 1 were both rather down-regulated in 10% FAC group as comparison with two WB groups. Despite expressing higher level than control group, birds receiving diet containing FAC had significantly lower expression level in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and other genes (inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3, and cyclooxygenase 2) involving in inflammatory pathways. Additionally, except for 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase that showed relatively higher in both groups, the WB, lipoprotein lipase, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, fatty acid binding protein, fatty acid desaturase 2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha genes were expressed at higher levels in 10% FAC group. In support of above results, promoted Nrf2 and inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation in chicken liver were found in FAC containing groups. H2O2 and NO levels induced by LPS and AAPH in cPBMCs were compromised in FAC containing diet. In 35-d-old birds, PGE2 production in cPBMCs was also suppressed by the FAC diet.
FAC may promote Nrf2 antioxidant pathway and positively regulate lipid metabolism, both are potential inhibitor of NF-κB inflammatory pathway.
論文出處：Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2020 Jul;33(7):1113-1125. doi: 10.5713/ajas.19.0392.
論文名稱：1. Effects of dietary Antrodia cinnamomea fermented product supplementation on antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.
作 者：Lee MT, Lin WC, Lin LJ, Wang SY, Chang SC, Lee TT.
出 版 年：2020
This study was investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of Antrodia cinnamomea fermented product on modulation of antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and lipid metabolism in broilers.
Functional compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity were detected in wheat bran (WB) solid-state fermented by Antrodia cinnamomea for 16 days (FAC). In animal experiment, 400 d-old broiler chickens were allotted into 5 groups fed control diet, and control diet replaced with 5% WB, 10% WB, 5% FAC, and 10% FAC respectively. Growth performance, intestinal microflora, serum antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid profiles in pectoral superficial muscle were measured.
Pretreatment with hot water extracted fermented product significantly reduced chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells death induced by lipopolysaccharide and 2,2′-Azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride. Birds received 5% and 10% FAC had higher weight gain than WB groups. Cecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria were diminished and increased respectively while diet replaced with FAC. For FAC supplemented groups, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased at 35 days only, with catalase elevated at 21 and 35 day. Regarding serum lipid parameters, 10% FAC replacement significantly reduced triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein level in chickens. For fatty acid composition in pectoral superficial muscle of 35-d-old chickens, 5% and 10% FAC inclusion had birds with significantly lower saturated fatty acids as compared with 10% WB group. Birds on the 5% FAC diet had a higher degree of unsaturation, followed by 10% FAC, control, 5% WB, and 10% WB.
In conclusion, desirable intestinal microflora in chickens obtaining FAC may be attributed to the functional metabolites detected in final fermented product. Moreover, antioxidant effects observed in FAC were plausibly exerted in terms of improved antioxidant enzymes activities, increased unsaturated degree of fatty acids in chicken muscle and better weight gain in FAC inclusion groups, indicating that FAC possesses promising favorable mechanisms worthy to be developed.
論文出處：Front Microbiol. 2020 Jul 3;11:1113. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.01113.
論文名稱：Triterpenoids Extracted From Antrodia cinnamomea Mycelia Attenuate Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in C57BL/6 Mice via Suppression Inflammatory Response.
作 者：Liu Y, Wang Z, Kong F, Teng L, Zheng X, Liu X, Wang D.
出 版 年：2020
論文結論：Excessive alcohol consumption causes liver injury–induced mortality. Here we systematically analyzed the structure of triterpenoids extracted from Antrodia cinnamomea mycelia (ACT) and investigated their protective effects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry were performed to determine the structures of ACT constituents. Alcohol-induced liver injury was generated in C57BL/6 mice by oral gavage of 13 g/kg white spirit (a wine at 56% ABV). Mice were treated with either silibinin or ACT for 2 weeks. Liver injury markers and pathological signaling were then quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, antibody array assays, and Western blots, and pathological examinations were performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining and periodic acid–Schiff staining. Triterpenoids extracted from A. cinnamomea mycelia contain 25 types of triterpenoid compounds. A 2-weeks alcohol consumption treatment caused significant weight loss, liver dyslipidemia, and elevation of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities in the serum and/or liver. These effects were markedly reversed after 2-weeks ACT administration. Triterpenoids extracted from A. cinnamomea mycelia alleviated the organ structural changes and inflammatory infiltration of alcohol-damaged tissues. Triterpenoids extracted from A. cinnamomea mycelia inhibited proinflammatory cytokine levels and enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. Acute alcohol treatment promoted inflammation with significant correlations to hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), which was reduced by ACT and was partially related to modulation of the protein kinase B (Akt)/70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase phosphorylation (p70S6K) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. In conclusion, ACT protected against acute alcohol-induced liver damage in mice mainly through its suppression of the inflammatory response, which may be related to HIF-1α signaling.
論文出處：Int J Nanomedicine. 2020 Jun 15;15:4191-4203. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S252885.
論文名稱：Nanoparticles of Antroquinonol-Rich Extract from Solid-State-Cultured Antrodia cinnamomea Improve Reproductive Function in Diabetic Male Rats.
作 者：Kong ZL, He JL, Sudirman S, Kuo MT, Miao S, Chang KB, Tsou D.
出 版 年：2020
論文結論：Purpose: To characterize the nanoparticle of antroquinonol from A. cinnamomea and its ameliorative effects on the reproductive dysfunction in the diabetic male rat.
Material and Methods: The chitosan-silicate nanoparticle was used as the carrier for the delivery of antroquinonol from solid-state-cultured A. cinnamomea extract (AC). The rats were fed with a high-fat diet and intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The rats were daily oral gavage by water [Diabetes (DM) and Control groups], three different doses of chitosan-silicate nanoparticle of antroquinonol from solid-state-cultured A. cinnamomea (nano-SAC, NAC): (DM+NAC1x, 4 mg/kg of body weight; DM+NAC2x, 8 mg/kg; and DM+NAC5x, 20 mg/kg), solid-state-cultured AC (DM+AC5x, 20 mg/kg), or metformin (DM+Met, 200 mg/kg) for 7 weeks.
Results: The nano-SAC size was 37.68± 5.91 nm, the zeta potential was 4.13± 0.49 mV, encapsulation efficiency was 79.29± 0.77%, and loading capacity was 32.45± 0.02%. The nano-SAC can improve diabetes-induced reproductive dysfunction by regulating glucose, insulin, and oxidative enzyme and by increasing the level of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sperm count as well as sperm mobility. In testicular histopathology, the seminiferous tubules of A. cinnamomea-supplemented diabetic rats showed similar morphology with the control group.
Conclusion: The nanoparticle of antroquinonol from Antrodia cinnamomea can be used as an effective strategy to improve diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction.
論文出處：Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Apr;112:108684. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108684. Epub 2019 Feb 21.
論文名稱：Attenuation of reproductive dysfunction in diabetic male rats with timber cultured Antrodia cinnamomea ethanol extract.
作 者：Johnson A, Cheng SC, Tsou D, Kong ZL.
出 版 年：2019
論文結論：Diabetes mellitus together with the oxidative stress affects the process of spermatogenesis and leads to male infertility. Antrodia cinnamomea ethanol extract (ACEE) has anti-inflammatory and ameliorative effects to prevent diabetes-induced male reproductive dysfunction. ACEE improved STZ-NA (streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (NA) (230 mg/kg)) induced hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. ACEE reduced the degree of lipid peroxidation, recovered the abnormal structure of the seminiferous tubules, and improved sperm parameters.
論文出處：Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Feb 15;20(4). pii: E846. doi: 10.3390/ijms20040846.
論文名稱：Protective Effect of Antrodia cinnamomea Extract against Irradiation-Induced Acute Hepatitis.
作 者：Kuo TH, Kuo YH, Cho CY, Yao CJ, Lai GM, Chuang SE.
出 版 年：2019
論文結論：Radiotherapy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma causes severe side effects, including acute hepatitis and chronic fibrosis. In normal liver cell line CL48, ethanol extract of Antrodia cinnamomea (ACE) protects cells by eliminating irradiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the induction of Nrf2 and the downstream redox system enzymes. The protective effect of ACE was also demonstrated in tumor-bearing mice by alleviating irradiation-induced acute hepatitis. ACE could also protect mice from CCl₄-induced hepatitis. ACE likely contains active components that protect normal liver cells from free radical attack and can potentially benefit hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients during radiotherapy.